Genetic diversity in natural populations of different organisms is one the major foci of IOE studies conducted on local sites in the Galilee and Mount Carmel; regional in Israel and the Near East, and global scales. Depending on the addressed questions and chosen group of organisms, the targeted sites include:

    1. Several valleys referred to as "Evolution Canyons" in Mount Carmel, western Upper Galilee Mountains, and the Negev Desert.

    2. Cereal biodiversity sites at Yehudiyya, Ammiad and Tabigha.

    3. Fungi biodiversity and stress adaptation at the Dead Sea.

    4. Several collections sites of Drosophila at the Tsin oasis in the Negev desert, E'in Gedi oasis in Judean desert, "Evolution Canyons", Lake Kinneret region, Golan Heights.

    5. Fossil plant cites in Israel are mainly located in the erosional craters (makhteshim) of the central Negev Desert and on the western slope of the Arava Rift Valley. The field studies are carried on in cooperation with the Geological Survey of Israel and the Technical University of Berlin.

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